New York law prevents spouses from being disinherited. Instead, a spouse who is disinherited may go to court and claim their “elective share” which is the greater of fifty thousand dollars or one-third of the estate.
Questions often arise as what the “estate” of the deceased spouse consists of. Naturally, any assets in the decedent’s name only and listed in the estate court proceeding apply. Other assets, known as “testamentary substitutes” because they do not pay by will, and is against which the spouse may make their claim are: bank accounts, investment accounts and retirement accounts with named beneficiaries other than the spouse or, similarly, those same asset if they have a joint owner other than the spouse. An exception would be if the other joint owner had made contributions to the joint account and then as to the contributions only.
Gifts made within one year of death are also available for the elective share claim. Oddly enough, life insurance is not considered a testamentary substitute however annuities are.